- Rugăciuni pentru eliberarea unei alunițe Cât costă o biopsie aluniță HPV, prescurtarea de la Virusul Papilloma Uman Human Papilloma Virus este una dintre cele mai raspandite boli cu transmitere sexuala.
- Cum să tratezi viermii pentru bebeluși
Herd Immunity refers to the level of disease resistance of a community or population. Herd immunity is associated with mass immunization by virtue of the belief that if high percentages of a population or community are adequately immunized against certain diseases, virtually all persons will be protected from disease.
Immunization against rubella presents an interesting example of both the utilitarian rationale behind mass immunization and of the sometimes perverse effects of inadequate immunity thresholds and of achieving targeted immunity thresholds but within the wrong herd population.
Mass rubella immunization, perhaps one of the clearest examples of immunization for utilitarian purposes, is meant to offer protection, not to the vaccine recipient but, to fetuses in utero whose susceptible mothers may contact an infectious carrier.
După îndepărtarea unei alunițe, curge fluid
Although contact with the rubella virus does not always result in congenital rubella hpv vaccine mandatory in what states 2021 CRSthe fetus of a non-immune mother who comes into contact with the virus during the first trimester of pregnancy may be at risk. It appears to be the current practice in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom to immunize children soon after their first birthday thus reducing the circulation of the wild virus among children.
Vaccinating children en mass against rubella is not justified by any significant health benefits accrued by the children themselves.
Instead, inflicting some measure of pain and risk of adverse events e. In the United States, the number of CRS cases reported forthe year hpv vaccine mandatory in what states 2021 rubella vaccine was licensed, was 31; that number represents a nearly three-fold increase in cases reported for each of the three preceding years. Certainly, as the above theory suggests, the initiation of rubella immunization, which would not reach herd immunity rates within the first year, could have resulted in an increase in CRS.
Oddly enough, and perhaps unpredictably, the number of CRS cases did not decline in the following years despite widespread vaccination.
In andCRS cases soared to 77 and 68 respectively. In fact, the number of CRS cases remained at very high levels per year for over a decade before they returned to the pre-vaccine rates. What actually happened is that rubella infections became less common in young children but appeared more frequently in older adolescents and adults which posed a greater health risk for women of reproductive age.
In Dr. Furthermore, fromBritain adopted the strategy of immunizing only adolescent girls and susceptible women and, while this strategy did not decrease the number of rubella cases, CRS cases decreased, albeit slightly. Similarly, fromthe US adopted this same strategy and by there was a significant decline in CRS cases.
Even though the US returned to the childhood vaccination strategy, both rubella and CRS cases continued to decline, except for occasional divergences.
- Papilomavirus uman cu risc oncogen ridicat - screening
- Traiectorii de alegere a terapiei homeopate.
- Respiratory papillomatosis ablation
It seems fairly clear that even if herd immunity thresholds are reached, but they are not reached in the proper populations, the results are disastrous and contrary to the goals of the herd immunity theory. If only susceptible women of childbearing age were targeted for immunization against rubella, it is unlikely that the US would ductal papilloma mri experienced such a dramatic increase in CRS cases.
Furthermore, this strategy would have conformed more closely to the utilitarian ethic in a variety of ways. The vaccine-related costs, pain and adverse events would have been less burdensome overall. It seems fairly clear that if vaccine-derived herd immunity really is an utilitarian benefit, then the target populations must be appropriate or else the result is disastrous.